Navigating the Fire Risks of Electric Vehicles in Enclosed Spaces: A Call to Action for European Safety Standards

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Navigating the Fire Risks of Electric Vehicles in Enclosed Spaces: A Call to Action for European Safety Standards

As the world races to combat climate change, the European Union has set ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. With the aim of slashing emissions by 90% by 2040, the EU envisions a future where electric vehicle (EV) plays a pivotal role in decarbonizing the transport sector. However, as EV adoption skyrockets across Europe, concerns about fire risks in enclosed spaces, particularly in car parks, have come to the forefront.

The Surge of Electric Vehicle

Driven by both government policies and technological advancements, the adoption of EVs in Europe has witnessed a remarkable surge in recent years. From comprising a mere 3.2% of the total market share in 2019, EV sales soared to approximately 10% in 2020, according to the International Energy Agency. Projections indicate that this growth trajectory will persist, with EVs expected to capture 19% of the market by 2025 and 35% by 2030.


The Hidden Risks

While the transition to electric mobility offers significant environmental benefits, it also presents new safety challenges. One such concern is the risk of fire associated with EV batteries, which can undergo thermal runaway—a process that can lead to sudden and extensive vehicle fires. Recent incidents in cities like Madrid and Barcelona serve as stark reminders of these risks, highlighting the need for comprehensive safety measures.

Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces

Enclosed spaces, such as underground car parks, pose unique challenges in fire safety engineering. Compartment fires in these environments can escalate rapidly, trapping heat and toxic fumes, and endangering lives. As EVs become more prevalent in car parks, these structures essentially transform into large-scale battery storage systems, significantly increasing the risk of fire incidents.

Regulatory Roadblocks

Despite the widespread adoption of EVs, fire safety regulations for electric vehicle in enclosed spaces remain fragmented across European countries. Some nations lack specific guidelines for mitigating the fire risks posed by EVs in car parks, leaving a critical gap in safety standards. The absence of uniform regulations underscores the urgent need for a cohesive approach to address these challenges.

The Path Forward

Recognizing the urgency of the situation, collaborative efforts are underway to develop comprehensive safety frameworks for EVs in enclosed spaces. Researchers from institutions like the Universidad de Navarra and Universiti Putra Malaysia are leading the charge, working towards establishing standardized safety protocols. However, addressing the multifaceted risks of EV fires requires the involvement of diverse stakeholders and specialized expertise.


As Europe steers towards a future powered by electric mobility, ensuring the safety of EVs in enclosed spaces must be a top priority. By bridging regulatory gaps, fostering collaboration, and investing in research, we can pave the way for a safer and more sustainable transportation ecosystem. With a unified approach to fire safety standards, we can unlock the full potential of electric vehicle while safeguarding the well-being of communities across Europe.

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