Sprinkler System : How Sprinkler System Function

How Sprinkler System Functions

What is Sprinkler System?

Sprinkler System is an automatic system designed to detect, control and eliminate fires and warn fire residents. Installations of the system consist of a set of pumps (duty, jockey, and standby), system water storage tank, main control valve set, sprinkler head, flow-switches, pressure switches, flow pipe and valve.

The sprinkler head consists of glass bulbs containing a liquid glycerine solution that expands at a temperature of 68 Celcius (depending on the type of liquid) and breaks the glass bulb and produces a water spray to fire.

sprinkler system

How does Sprinkler System is Works?



  • As we know, water is a tool that can prevent fire. Continuous spray on the surface of the fire and heat can reduce the temperature of the combustion process and prevent the flame from spreading to the nearest space. There is a metal cover on the top of the glass bulb to hold water from flowing out through the sprinkler head.


  • The heat from the combustion process increases the room temperature and causes the fluid in the bulb to expand. When the temperature rises to 68oC (depending on the type of sprayer head), the glass bulb will break and the metal cover will fall causing the water to flow out and about the deflector plate to form a water spray.


  • When the flow switch detects the flow of water in the distribution pipes, the signal will be sent to the alarm panel to sound the alarm warning bell and at the same time, the pressure switch detects the pressure of the water pressure and moves the jockey pump.


  • The ‘jockey’ pump will operate automatically to adjust the water pressure change in the pipe.


  • When the pressure is decreasing, the ‘duty’ pump will operate automatically and the jockey pump will automatically stop.


  • When the fire is completely discharged, the flow of water in the pipeline will be stopped by using the “butterfly” valve in the fire zone and the duty pump will be discharged manually.


The system shall have a direct connection line to the nearest Fire Station. Note that the sprinkler works to detect heat. At certain temperature tolerances, the fluid in the tube will rupture until the sprinkler head releases water. But the sprinkler releases less water. This is because the sprinkler is enabled to extinguish a relatively small fire.



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